A Shell Scripting Tutorial


If you’d like to learn more about shell scripting, you can begin by checking out FreeCodeCamp. This website provides free tutorials for many languages, including Bash. You should also read the GNU Bash reference manual, which has concise examples and is organized by topic. Another great resource is ShellCheck, a static analysis tool for shell scripts. It’s available online and can be integrated into IDEs like IntelliJ and Vim.

Getopts statement

A getopts statement is a built-in function in bash. It is a command line option that accepts two short arguments, one of which must be an OPTARG. An OPTARG can be either an argument or a string. The latter is more common and is used to set the options that a script will process.

The getopts statement can identify which options are passed to the command line. It is most often used as a condition in a while loop. It is similar to a case statement, except that it doesn’t require a shift. When used in a while loop, it is not processed until there are no more options to process. The shift statement will also not process the getopts statement.

For loop

A for loop is a shell scripting structure that repeats a set of instructions. It iterates over a list of names, executing commands inside the loop’s body until all the variables in the list are complete. This excellent tool for automating small tasks, such as renaming files.

A for loop is a valuable programming tool that allows users to automate and simplify repetitive tasks. It can be used in almost any programming language, and the Bash programming language is no exception. Using a for loop in bash is straightforward. But it is important to remember that the for loop can be used for different purposes.

comparing two strings

Comparing two strings is one of the basic operations in Bash scripts. It can be used to test conditions before proceeding with a script. A string is any sequence of characters. For example, a string can be a word or an entire sentence. To use the compare function, you must first define the two strings.

Usually, comparing two strings consists of determining whether one string is equal to the other. This can be accomplished with the == operator or an asterisk symbol. The latter matches all characters in a string. An asterisk followed by a period matches zero or more occurrences of a character.

executing a shell script

The first thing you need to know when executing a shell script is that you must run it as the root user. This is necessary if you want to perform system-level changes or install applications. However, if you have no root access, you can always use sudo before you execute your script.

You should also know that you can execute a shell script using the CLI. You can perform this in many different environments. For example, you can execute a shell script on Windows or Linux. Once you have a shell script, you can call up a particular service and execute it. You can use the cash command to call the service if you’re using Linux.


Variables in shell scripting are used to store information. For example, the $PATH variable stores the directories you want to search. It is typically stored in /etc/profile or /.bashrc, depending on the operating system. There is also the $BASH_VERSION variable that tells you what version of Bash you’re running.

Variables are used in command line processing and are simple to use. However, they can get you into trouble when they are not appropriately understood. Using variables correctly will help you avoid problems, especially if you’re planning to write a complex script.


Hashbang, also called shebang, is an essential part of shell scripting. It comprises the exclamation mark (!) and pound key (#). It specifies the default interpreter used in the script. It is also used to denote comments. In shell scripting, shebangs are often used before a command.

When using shebangs, the first path in the script is the path to bash. However, there are ways to override the interpreter by placing the interpreter in the Shebang line. However, this can lead to unexpected behavior.