The Metabolic Syndrome


If you have any of the three conditions that make up metabolic syndrome, you may be at risk for serious health issues. While these conditions may not appear to have symptoms, they can lead to many serious complications. Some metabolic syndrome symptoms include blurry vision, poor wound healing, increased risk of infections, and heart disease.

Abdominal obesity

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors contributing to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. It has been estimated that as many as 20 percent of the adult population worldwide has some form of metabolic syndrome. Its primary risk factor is abdominal obesity, a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30. In addition to obesity, other risk factors include high circulating triglycerides, insulin resistance, and physical inactivity. This syndrome is a global health problem, yet awareness of the syndrome is deficient.

While BMI has a modest association with cardiovascular risk factors, abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome measurements have stronger associations. In addition, abdominal obesity is one of the significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

Insulin resistance

The association between obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome is well documented. These conditions have been linked with the risk of various health conditions, including T2DM, CVD, and MS. Thus, it is imperative to find effective prevention and treatment methods. Researchers are examining the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance to improve the population’s health.

Insulin resistance is a complex metabolic trait and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is the result of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. GWAS and exome sequencing has uncovered common and rare genetic variants associated with insulin resistance. Many of these variants are involved in glucose metabolism, but additional functional studies are needed to understand how these variants affect insulin resistance.


Hypertriglyceridemia is a common disorder that often develops in people with uncontrolled diabetes. It is also often exacerbated by obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. It is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. The condition can be diagnosed by laboratory analysis of plasma or serum after a fast of 10 to 12 hours. However, determining the exact cause of hypertriglyceridemia is difficult.

Although high serum cholesterol is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease, its role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease is still unclear. In addition, while elevated serum triglycerides have been associated with atherogenic factors such as elevated blood pressure and high LDL cholesterol, the precise role of hypertriglyceridemia is not well understood.

Low HDL-cholesterol

Researchers have found a connection between low HDL cholesterol and metabolic syndrome. They compared the cardiovascular risk parameters of type 2 diabetic patients with low HDL cholesterol to those with hypertriglyceridemia and normal lipid levels. The findings suggest that combining these conditions can lead to high blood pressure and cholesterol.

The study also revealed a positive association between low HDL cholesterol and periodontal disease. In addition, those with metabolic syndrome had higher rates of periodontal disease than those without the syndrome. Therefore, checking for metabolic syndrome and low HDL cholesterol is essential to prevent these diseases.

Sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Severe disorder cases have been associated with increased blood pressure levels, insulin resistance, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although visceral obesity has been a confounding factor in many studies, the association between sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome remains suggestive. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with frequent sleep arousals and recurrent oxyhemoglobin desaturations. Obstructive sleep apnoea is also associated with loud snoring.

Researchers have linked the two conditions in a study involving 1344 individuals. The study examined the relationship between sleep duration and cardiovascular mortality among people with and without metabolic syndrome. Researchers found a significant interaction between metabolic syndrome and sleep duration.


Treatment of metabolic syndrome may include a combination of lifestyle modifications and medication. The initial diagnosis of metabolic syndrome aims to identify those at risk and determine the most effective treatment options. Lifestyle changes can help control blood pressure, cholesterol, and insulin sensitivity. In addition, medication may be prescribed to help treat hypertension and diabetes. Diet is an essential component of metabolic syndrome treatment, and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommends 150 minutes of moderate physical activity per week. In addition, you should include brisk walking in your routine.

The diet for treating metabolic syndrome consists of various foods that can have positive effects on the syndrome components. Fish oils, for example, can be beneficial for the cardiovascular system by reducing LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. In addition, nuts can improve glycemic control.